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AVDC Nomenclature

Determining and adopting nomenclature is an on­going process. Additional items will be added to this page as they are approved by the Nomenclature Committee and AVDC and Foundation for Veterinary Dentistry Boards. This webpage is not meant to be a veterinary dental text­book. It provides definitions for structures, diseases and treatment procedures relevant to the oral cavity. Its primary purpose to is provide definitive terms for use by AVDC residents and diplomates to permit optimal communication in case logs and articles.

Abbreviations to be used in AVDC Case Logs are shown in (brackets)

Definitions of Veterinary Dentistry, Equine Dentistry and Beakology

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Veterinary dentistry

Veterinary Dentistry is a discipline within the scope of veterinary practice that involves the professional consultation, evaluation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment (non­surgical, surgical or related procedures) of conditions, diseases, and disorders of the oral cavity and maxillofacial area and their adjacent and associated structures; it is provided by a licensed veterinarian, within the scope of his/her education, training and experience, in accordance with the ethics of the profession and applicable law.

Equine dentistry

Equine Dentistry is the practice of veterinary dentistry performed in equids (genus Equus: horses, asses and zebras).

Beakology

Beakology is the branch of science dealing with the anatomy, physiology and pathology
(including diagnosis and treatment of such pathology) of the beak and associated tissues of
vertebrate animals that have beaks or beak­like structures.

 

 

 

Definitions of Items Applying to More than One Oral Tissue or Disease

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Congenital

Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that is present at birth and may be inherited or result from an insult during pregnancy.

Acquired

Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that develops after birth and is not inherited.

Inherited

Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that results from the genetic make­up of the individual animal and may be present at birth or develop later in life.

Culture/sensitivity (CS)

Bacteria cultured in medium and analyzed for sensitivity to antibiotics.

Laceration (LAC)

A tear or cut in the gingiva/alveolar mucosa (LAC/G), tongue/sublingual mucosa (LAC/T), lip skin/labial mucosa (LAC/L), cheek skin/buccal mucosa (LAC/B), palatal mucosa (LAC/P), or palatine tonsil/oropharyngeal mucosa (LAC/O); debridement and suturing of such.

Chewing lesion (CL)

Mucosal lesion resulting from self­induced bite trauma on the cheek (CL/B), lip (CL/L), palate (CL/P) or tongue/sublingual region (CL/T).

Foreign body (FB)

An object originating outside the body; removal of the foreign body is abbreviated with FB/R.

Burn (TMA/BRN)

Injury to skin, mucosa or other body parts due to fire, heat, radiation, electricity, or a caustic
agent

Ballistic trauma (TMA/B)

Physical trauma sustained from a projectile that was launched through space, most commonly by a weapon such as a gun or a bow.

Electric injury (TMA/E)

Physical trauma to skin, mucosa or other tissues when coming into direct contact with an electrical current.

Dental Anatomy

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Pulp cavity

Space within the tooth

Pulp chamber

Space within the crown of a tooth

Root canal

Space within the root of a tooth

Apical foramen

Opening at the apex of a tooth, through which neurovascular structures pass to and from the dental pulp

Apical delta

Multiple apical foramina forming a branching pattern at the apex of a tooth reminiscent of a river delta when sectioned and viewed through a microscope that occurs in some brachyodont teeth

Ameloblasts

Epithelial cells involved in the formation of enamel (amelogenesis)

Enamel (E)

Mineralized tissue covering the crown of brachyodont teeth

Anatomical crown (CR/AC)

That part of a tooth that is coronal to the cementoenamel junction (or anatomical root)

Clinical crown (CR/CC)

That part of a tooth that is coronal to the gingival margin; also called erupted crown in equines

Anatomical root (RO/AR)

That part of a tooth that is apical to the cementoenamel junction (or anatomical crown)

Clinical root (RO/CR)

That part of a brachyodont tooth that is apical to the gingival margin

Cementoenamel junction

Area of a tooth where cementum and enamel meet

Reserve crown (CR/RC)

That part of the crown of a hypsodont tooth that is apical to the gingival margin

Nomenclature and Numbering of Teeth

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Incisor Teeth

The incisors will be referred to as: (right or left) (maxillary or mandibular) first, second, or third incisors numbered from the midline. Reference: Peyer B. Comparative odontology. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968;1-347. Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99.

Premolar Teeth in the Cat:

In the cat, the tooth immediately distal to the maxillary canine is the second premolar, the tooth immediately distal to the mandibular canine is the third premolar.
Reference(s): Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99.

Tooth Numbering:

The existence of the conventional anatomical names of teeth as well as the various tooth numbering systems is recognized. The correct anatomical names of teeth are (right or left), (maxillary or mandibular), (first, second, third or fourth), (incisor, canine, premolar, molar), as applicable, written out in full or abbreviated. The modified Triadan system is presently considered to be the tooth numbering system of choice in veterinary dentistry; gaps are left in the numbering sequence where there are missing teeth (for example, the first premolar encountered in the feline left maxilla is numbered 206, not 205. The two lower right premolars are 407 and 408, not 405 and 406).

Both the use of anatomical names and the modified Triadan system are acceptable for recording and storing veterinary dental information. The use of anatomical names in publications is required by many leading journals and is recommended. It offers the advantage of veterinary dental publications being understandable to other health professionals and scientists with an interest in veterinary dentistry.

Reference(s): Floyd MR. The modified Triadan system: nomenclature for veterinary dentistry. J Vet Dent 1991; 8:18-19.

Comments:
In January 1972, the International Dental Federation adopted a new, two digit, user friendly nomenclature system for use in the human dental patient. This new system eliminated the plus and minus signs of the Haderup System and the brackets of the Winkel System. Following the acceptance of the new system for human dental nomenclature, Professor DrMedDent H. Triadan, a dentist at the University of Bern, Switzerland, introduced a similar system for animals. Due to the fact that many animals, including his canine model, have more than nine teeth in a quadrant, the Triadan system for animals utilizes three digits instead of two digits.

Abbreviations associated with Teeth:

Tooth (T):        Hard structure embedded in the jaw; used for biting and chewing
Incisor (I):        Incisor tooth
Canine (C):      Canine tooth
Pemolar (P):    Premolar tooth
Molar (M):        Molar tooth
Alveolus (A):    Socket in the jaw for a tooth root or reserve crown (plural: alveoli)
Crown (C):       Coronal portion of a tooth
Root (RO):        Radicular portion of a tooth
Apex (AP):       End of the root or reserve crown (plural: apices)

Generations of Teeth in Diphyodont Species

_________________________________________Deciduous and Permanent are the anatomically correct terms to denote the two generations of teeth in diphyodont species.

It is acceptable to use primary instead of deciduous in communicating with clients.
Reference: Anonymous. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Boucher CO, Zwemer TJ. Boucher’s clinical dental terminology – a glossary of accepted terms in all disciplines of dentistry. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993. Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Comments: Deciduous is the scientific term used in biology, as well as in comparative anatomy and anthropology for both animal and plant structures which are regularly shed. As a substitute for temporary, the term primary appeared early in the literature and it is listed in both Anthony’s and Otofy’s dictionaries 1922-23. The style of the Journal of the ADA requires the term deciduous in all literature designed for the profession and allows primary only in discourse for non-professional persons.

Deciduous tooth (DT):

Primary tooth replaced by a permanent (secondary) tooth.

The deciduous dentition period is that period during which only deciduous teeth are present.
The mixed dentition period is that period during which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present.
The permanent dentition period is that period during which only permanent teeth are present.
Reference: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Boucher CO, Zwemer TJ. Boucher’s clinical dental terminology – a glossary of accepted terms in all disciplines of dentistry. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993. Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

The term “Persistent deciduous tooth” is etymologically correct, although the term “retained deciduous tooth” is commonly used. The latter term, however, can be confused with an unerupted deciduous tooth.
Reference: Eisenmenger E, Zetner K. Tierv§rztliche Zahnheilkunde. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1982;44-50.

Surfaces of Teeth and Directions in the Mouth

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Vestibular/Buccal/Labial

Vestibular is the correct term referring to the surface of the tooth facing the vestibule or lips; buccal and labial are acceptable alternatives.
Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994.
Comment(s): The term “facial” specifically refers to the surfaces of the rostral teeth visible from the front. According to Dr. A.J. Bezuidenhout, a veterinary anatomist at Cornell University, “facial” is a bit of a misnomer. Traditionally “facial” has been used in human dentistry for the aspect of teeth visible from the front, i.e. incisors and canines.

Lingual/Palatal

Lingual: The surface of a mandibular or maxillary tooth facing the tongue is the lingual surface. Palatal can also be used when referring to the lingual surface of maxillary teeth.

Mesial/Distal

Mesial and distal are terms applicable to tooth surfaces. The mesial surface of the first incisor is next to the median plane; on other teeth it is directed toward the first incisor. The distal surface is opposite from the mesial surface.

Rostral/Caudal

Rostral and caudal are the positional and directional anatomical terms applicable to the head in a sagittal plane in non-human vertebrates. Rostral refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the most forward structure of the head. Caudal refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the tail.

Anterior and posterior are the synonymous terms used in human dentistry.

Enamel Abnormalities

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Abrasion (AB):

Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with a non-dental object

Attrition (AT):

Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with another tooth

Erosion (ER):

Demineralization of tooth substance due to external acids

Caries (CA):

Degradation of dental hard tissue caused by demineralization due to acids released during bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates

Enamel defect (ED):

Lesion affecting the structural integrity of enamel

Enamel hypoplasia (E/H):

Refers to inadequate deposition of enamel matrix. This can affect one or several teeth and may be focal or multifocal. The crowns of affected teeth can have areas of normal enamel next to areas of hypoplastic or missing enamel.

Enamel hypomineralization (E/HM):

Refers to inadequate mineralization of enamel matrix. This often affects several or all teeth. The crowns of affected teeth are covered by soft enamel that may be worn rapidly.

Enamel infraction (T/FX/EI):

Incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

Enamel fracture (T/FX/EF):

Fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel

Tooth Formation Abnormalities

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Persistent deciduous tooth (DT/P):

A deciduous tooth that is present when it should have exfoliated

Supernumerary tooth (T/SN):

Presence of an extra tooth (also called hyperdontia)

Hypodontia (HYP):

Developmental absence of few teeth

Oligodontia (OLI):

Developmental absence of numerous teeth

Anodontia (ANO):

Failure of all teeth to develop

Macrodontia (T/MAC):

Tooth/teeth are larger than normal

Microdontia (T/MIC):

Tooth/teeth are smaller than normal

Transposition (T/TRA):

Two teeth that have exchanged position

Fusion (T/FUS):

Combining of adjacent tooth germs and resulting in partial or complete union of the developing teeth; also called synodontia

Concrescence (T/CCR):

Fusion of the roots of two or more teeth at the cementum level

Fused roots (T/FDR):

Fusion of roots of the same tooth

Gemination (T/GEM):

A single tooth bud’s attempt to divide partially (cleft of the crown) or completely (presence of an identical supernumerary tooth); also called twinning

Supernumerary root (T/SR):

Presence of an extra root

Dilaceration (T/DIL):

Disturbance in tooth development, causing the crown or root to be abruptly bent or crooked

Dens invaginatus (T/DEN):

Invagination of the outer surface of a tooth into the interior, occurring in either the crown (involving the pulp chamber) or the root (involving the root canal); also called dens in dente

Enamel pearl (E/P):

Small, nodular growth on the root of a tooth made of enamel with or without a small dentin core and sometimes a covering of cementum

Unerupted tooth (T/U):

Tooth that has not perforated the oral mucosa

Embedded tooth (T/E):

Unerupted tooth covered in bone whose eruption is compromised by lack of eruptive force

Impacted tooth (T/I):

Unerupted or partially erupted tooth whose eruption is prevented by contact with a physical barrier

Dentigerous cyst (DTC):

Odontogenic cyst initially formed around the crown of a partially erupted or unerupted tooth; also called follicular cyst or tooth-containing cyst; removal is abbreviated DTC/R

Folliculitis (FOL):

Inflammation of the follicle of a developing tooth

Pericoronitis (PEC):

Inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth

Tooth Resorption

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Tooth resorption is classified based on the severity of the resorption (Stages 1-5) and on the location of the resorption (Types 1-3).
The AVDC classification of tooth resorption is based on the assumption that tooth resorption is a progressive condition.

Tooth resorption (TR):

Resorption of dental hard tissue

Internal resorption (RR:)

Tooth resorption originating within the pulp cavity

Stages of Tooth Resorption

Stage 1 (TR 1):  Mild dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel). TR1
Stage 2 (TR 2): Moderate dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that does not extend to the pulp cavity). TR2 TR2 TR2 radiograph
Stage 3 (TR 3): Deep dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth retains its integrity. TR3 TR3 clinical

TR3 radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4a Crown and root are equally affected;

TR4a TR4a radiograph
Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4b: Crown is more severely affected than the root;

TR4b TR4b clinical

TR4b radiograph

Stage 4 (TR 4):: Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity.

TR4c: Root is more severely affected than the crown.

TR4c TR4c clinical TR4c radiograph
Stage 5 (TR 5): Remnants of dental hard tissue are visible only as irregular radiopacities, and gingival covering is complete. TR5 TR5 clinical

TR5 radiograph

For low resolution printer-friendly versions of the full sets of tooth resorption images, click TR Diagrams or TR Clinical Images.

Types of Resorption Based on Radiographic Appearance

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Type 1 (T1):

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 1 (T1) appearance, a focal or multifocal radiolucency is present in the tooth with otherwise normal radiopacity and normal periodontal ligament space.

Type 2 (T2):

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 2 (T2) appearance, there is narrowing or disappearance of the periodontal ligament space in at least some areas and decreased radiopacity of part of the tooth.

Type 3 (T3):

On a radiograph of a tooth with type 3 (T3) appearance, features of both type 1 and type 2 are present in the same tooth. A tooth with this appearance has areas of normal and narrow or lost periodontal ligament space, and there is focal or multifocal radiolucency in the tooth and decreased radiopacity in other areas of the tooth.

 



Radiographic Examples of Types of Tooth Resorption:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of these images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as © AVDC ®, used with permission. The diagrams are provided courtesy of Veterinary Information Network. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

Tooth Fracture Classification

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The Tooth Fracture (T/FX) classification shown below can be applied for brachyodont and hypsodont teeth, which covers domesticated species and many wild species.

Fractures of teeth in some wild species may not fit into this classification because of differences in the tissues present in the teeth.
When used in AVDC case log entries, the tooth fracture abbreviations noted below are to be stated as T/FX/{specific abbreviation} e.g T/FX/CCF

Enamel infraction (T/FX/EI):

Incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

Enamel fracture (T/FX/EF):

Fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel

Uncomplicated crown fracture (T/FX/UCF):

Fracture of the crown that does not expose the pulp

Complicated crown fracture (T/FX/CCF):

Fracture of the crown that exposes the pulp

Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/UCRF):

Fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp

Complicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/CCRF):

Fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp

Root fracture (T/FX/RF):

Fracture involving the root

Retained root or reserve crown (RTR):

Presence of a root remnant or reserve crown remnant

Retained crown-root or clinical crown-reserve crown or clinical crown-reserve crown and root (RCR):

Presence of a crown-root remnant (in brachyodont teeth), clinical crown-reserve crown remnant (in aradicular hypsodont teeth) or clinical crown-reserve crown and root remnant (in radicular hypsodont teeth)


To download a .pdf printable version of this composite diagram, click download

Enamel infraction (EI):

An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance. Example:

Enamel fracture (EF):

A fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel. Example:

Uncomplicated crown fracture (UCF):

A fracture of the crown1 that does not expose the pulp. Example:

Complicated crown fracture (CCF):

A fracture of the crown1 that exposes the pulp. Example:

Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (UCRF):

A fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp. Example:

Complicated crown-root fracture (CCRF):

A fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp. Example:

Root fracture (RF):

A fracture involving the root. Example:

Copyright of these images is owned by AVDC. Download of the images and use in printed materials or presentations is permitted without charge provided that the source is cited as Copyright AVDC, used with permission.

The AVDC Board gratefully acknowledges Veterinary Information Network (VIN) for developing and donating the tooth fracture and tooth resorption diagrams. The clinical images are provided by diplomates of AVDC.

To save a high-resolution version of an individual image for use in a presentation or a printed article, right-click on the image, click Save Picture As and follow the on-screen directions.

Endodontic Terminology

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Endodontics is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the pulp-dentin complex and their impact on associated tissues.

Apexogenesis:

Physiological formation of the apex of a vital tooth

Pulp (PU):

Soft tissue in the pulp cavity

Odontoblasts:

Cells of mesenchymal origin that line the outer surface of the pulp and whose biological function is formation of dentin (dentinogenesis)

Predentin:

Unmineralized dentin matrix produced by odontoblasts

Dentin:

Mineralized tissue surrounding the pulp and containing dentinal tubules which radiate outward from the pulp to the periphery

Primary dentin:

Dentin produced until root formation is completed (e.g., dogs, cats) or the tooth comes into occlusion (e.g., horses)

Secondary dentin:

Dentin produced after root formation is completed

Tertiary dentin:

Dentin produced as a result of a local insult; can be reactionary (produced by existing odontoblasts) or reparative (produced by odontoblast-like cells that differentiated from pulpal stem cells as a result of an insult)

Sclerotic dentin:

Transparent dentin characterized by mineralization of the dentinal tubules as a result of an insult or normal aging

Periapical (PA):

Pertaining to tissues around the apex of a tooth, including the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone

Fracture (FX):

Breaking of a bone or tooth

Vital tooth (T/V):

Tooth with vital pulp

Nonvital tooth (T/NV):

Tooth with nonvital pulp or from which the pulp has been removed

Pulp stones (PU/S):

Intrapulpal mineralized structures

Mineralization of the pulp (PU/M):

Pulpal mineralization resulting in regional narrowing or complete disappearance of the pulp cavity

Hypercementosis (HC):

Excessive deposition of cementum around the root or reserve crown of a tooth

Near pulp exposure (T/NE):

Thin layer of dentin separating the pulp from the outer tooth surface

Pulp exposure (T/PE):

Tooth with an opening through the wall of the pulp cavity uncovering the pulp

Tooth luxation (T/LUX):

Clinically or radiographically evident displacement of the tooth within its alveolus

Tooth avulsion (T/A):

Complete extrusive luxation with the tooth out of its alveolus

Periapical pathology (PA/P):

Pertaining to disease around the apex of a tooth

Periapical cyst (PA/C):

Odontogenic cyst formed around the apex of a tooth after stimulation and proliferation of epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament (also known as a radicular cyst)

Periapical granuloma (PA/G):

Chronic apical periodontitis with accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells and an encircling aggregation of fibroblasts and collagen that on diagnostic imaging appears as diffuse or circumscribed radiolucent lesion

Periapical abscess (PA/A):

Acute or chronic inflammation of the periapical tissues characterized by localized accumulation of suppuration

Osteosclerosis (OSS):

Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a vital tooth caused by low-grade pulp irritation (asymptomatic; not requiring endodontic therapy)

Condensing osteitis (COO):

Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a non-vital tooth caused by long-standing and low-toxic exudation from an infected pulp (requiring endodontic therapy)

Alveolar osteitis (AOS):

Inflammation of the alveolar bone considered to be a complication after tooth extraction

Osteomyelitis (OST):

Localized or wide-spread infection of the bone and bone marrow

Osteonecrosis (OSN):

Localized or wide-spread necrosis of the bone and bone marrow

Phoenix abscess:

Acute exacerbation of chronic apical periodontitis

Intraoral fistula (IOF):

Pathological communication between tooth, bone or soft tissue and the oral cavity; use IOF/R for its repair

Orofacial fistula (OFF):

Pathological communication between the oral cavity and face; use OFD/R for its repair

Indirect pulp capping (PCI):

Procedure involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of near pulp exposure

Direct pulp capping (PCD):

Procedure performed as part of vital pulp therapy and involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of pulp exposure

Vital pulp therapy (VPT):

Procedure performed on a vital tooth with pulp exposure, involving partial pulpectomy, direct pulp capping and access/fracture site restoration

Apexification (APN):

Procedure to promote apical closure of a nonvital tooth

Standard (orthograde) root canal therapy (RCT):

Procedure that involves accessing, debriding (including total pulpectomy), shaping, disinfecting, and obturating the root canal and restoring the access and/or fracture sites

Surgical (retrograde) root canal therapy (RCT/S):

Procedure that involves accessing the bone surface (through mucosa or skin), fenestration of the bone over the root apex, apicoectomy, and retrograde filling

Apicoectomy (AP/X):

Removal of the apex of a tooth; also called root end resection

Retrograde filling:

Restoration placed in the apical portion of the root canal after apicoectomy

Tooth repositioning (T/RP):

Repositioning of a displaced tooth

Interdental splinting (IDS):

Fixation using intraoral splints between teeth within a dental arch (for example for avulsed or luxated teeth that underwent reimplantation or repositioning); if performed for jaw fracture repair, use FX/R/IDS

Operative Dentistry and Prosthodontic Terminology

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Operative (or restorative) dentistry is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the art and science of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of defects of teeth that do not require prosthodontic crowns for correction.

Prosthodontics (or dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry) is a speciality in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the provision of suitable substitutes for the clinical crown of teeth or for one or more missing or lost teeth and their associated parts. Maxillofacial prosthetics is considered a subspecialty of prosthodontics, involving palatal obturators and maxillofacial prostheses to replace resected or lost tissues.

Odontoplasty (ODY):

Surgical contouring of the tooth surface

Defect preparation (DP):

Removal of dental hard tissue to establish in a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a defect restoration

Restoration (R):

Anything that replaces lost tooth structure, teeth or oral tissues, including fillings, inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, bridges, implants, dentures and obturators

Defect restoration:

Filling made of amalgam (R/A), glass ionomer (R/I), composite (R/C) or compomer (R/CP) within a prepared defect

Bridge (BRI):

Fixed partial denture used to replace a missing or lost tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth or implants

Crown preparation (CR/P):

Removal of enamel or enamel and dentin to establish on a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a prosthodontic crown

Temporary crown (CR/T):

Provisional, short-term cap made of resin to protect a prepared crown until cementation of a prosthodontic crown

Full crown:

Prosthodontic crown made of metal (CR/M), resin (CR/R), ceramic (CR/C) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM) that covers the tip and all sides of a prepared crown

Partial crown:

Prosthodontic crown (e.g., three-quarter crown) made of metal (CR/M/P), resin (CR/R/P), ceramic (CR/C/P) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM/P) that covers part of a prepared crown

Implant (IMP):

Titanium rod-shaped endosseous device to support intraoral prosthetics that resemble a tooth or group of teeth to replace one or more missing or lost teeth

Crown reduction (CR/XP):

Partial removal of tooth substance to reduce the height or an abnormal extension of the clinical crown

Crown amputation (CR/A):

Total removal of clinical crown substance

Post and core (PCB):

Placing a post into the root canal of a tooth that had root canal therapy and build-up of a core made of filling material around the portion of post that extends out from the pulp cavity

Jaw and TMJ Anatomy

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All mammals have two maxillas (or maxillae) and two mandibles. The adjective “maxillary” is often used in a wider sense, e.g., “maxillary fractures”, to include other facial bones, in addition to the maxillary bone proper.

References:

Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. The skull. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993;128-166. Hildebrand M. Analysis of vertebrate structure. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, et al. Teeth, general and comparative. In: The viscera of domestic mammals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey, 1973;75-99. Verstraete FJM. Maxillofacial fractures. In: Slatter DH, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;2190-2207.

Incisive Bones:

In domestic animals, the correct name for the paired bones that carry the maxillary incisors, located rostral to the maxillary bones, is the incisive bones, not the premaxilla.
Reference(s): Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994.

Clinically Relevant Terms Related to the Mandible and Temporomandibular Joint:

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Mandible

All animals have two mandibles, not one; removing one entire mandible is a total mandibulectomy not a hemimandibulectomy

Body of the mandible

The part that carries the teeth; often incorrectly referred to as horizontal ramus

Incisive part

The part that carries the incisors

Molar part

The part that carries the premolars and molars; premolar-molar part would probably have been more accurate

Alveolar margin

Often incorrectly referred to as alveolar crest

Ventral margin

Free ventral border

Mandibular canal

Contains a neurovascular bundle; often incorrectly referred to as the medullary cavity of the mandible

Mental foramens or foramina

Rostral, middle or caudal mental foramina in the dog and cat

Ramus of the mandible

The part that carries the 3 processes; often incorrectly referred to as the vertical ramus

Angular process

Caudoventral process (in carnivora)

Coronoid process

Process for the attachment of the temporal muscle

Condylar process

Consisting of mandibular head and mandibular neck; often incorrectly referred to as condyloid process

Mandibular head

Articular head of the condylar process

Mandibular neck

Neck of the condylar process

Mandibular notch

The notch on the caudal aspect, between the coronoid and condylar processes; not to be confused with the facial vascular notch

Mandibular angle

Angle between the body and ramus of the mandible.

Facial vascular notch

Shallow indentation on the ventral apsect of the mandible, rostral to the angular process (absent in carnivores)

Mandibular foramen

The entrance to the mandibular canal

Intermandibular joint (mandibular symphysis)

Median connection of the bodies of the right and left mandibles (in adult Sus and Equus replaced by a synostosis), consisting of intermandibular synchondrosis and intermandibular suture

Intermandibular synchondrosis

The smaller part of the intermandibular joint formed by cartilage

Intermandibular suture

The larger part of the intermandibular joint formed by connective tissue

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

The area where the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

Articular disk

A flat structure composed of fibrocartilagenous tissue and positioned between the articular surfaces of the condylar process of the mandible and mandibular fossa of the temporal bone, separating the joint capsule in dorsal and ventral compartments; often incorrectly referred to as meniscus.

Mandibular fossa

Concave depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the mandibular head

Retroarticular process

A projection of the temporal bone that protrudes ventrally from the caudal end of the zygomatic arch and carries part of the mandibular fossa</

Reference: Anon. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich, Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994.
Scapino RP. The third joint of the canine jaw. J Morphol 1965;116:23-50.

Other Terms Relating to the Jaws and TMJ

_________________________________________

Alveolar jugum (plural: alveolar juga):

The palpable convexity of the buccal alveolar bone overlying a large tooth root. References: Anonymous. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Dental arch:

Referring to the curving structure formed by the teeth in their normal position; upper dental arch formed by the maxillary teeth, lower dental arch formed by the mandibular teeth

Jaw quadrant:

Referring to the left or right upper or lower jaw

Interarch:

Referring to between the upper and lower dental arches

Interquadrant:

Referring to between the left and right upper or lower jaw quadrants

Jaw and Related Abbeviations:

Mandible/mandibular (MN):

Referring to the lower jaw

Maxilla/maxillary (MX):

Referring to the upper jaw

Mandibular symphysis (SYM):

Joint between the left and right mandibles (intermandibular joint)

Zygomatic arch (ZYG):

Consisting of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone; also called zygoma

Jaw Trauma

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Maxillary fracture (MX/FX):

Fracture of the upper jaw (maxilla and other facial bones)

Mandibular fracture (MN/FX):

Fracture of the lower jaw (mandible)

Sympyseal separation (SYM/S):

Separation of the two mandibles in the mandibular symphysis; this includes parasymphyseal fractures where the fracture line is partly or completely paramedian to the symphysis; repair of symphyseal separation with wire (circumferential or interquadrant) and/or intraoral resin splinting is abbreviated with

Repair of a jaw fracture (FX/R):

Used when any of the other abbreviations do not describe the jaw fracture repair technique applied

Maxillomandibular fixation (FX/R/MMF):

Fixation that brings together the upper and lower jaws; use

MMF

for devices other than muzzles and splints

Muzzling (FX/R/MZ):

Maxillomandibular fixation using a prefabricated or custom-made muzzle; also used in horses to prevent eating (e.g., post sedation)

Interarch splinting (FX/R/IAS):

Maxillomandibular fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire)

Interquadrant splinting (FX/R/IQS):

Fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire) between the left and right upper or lower jaw quadrants

Interdental splinting (FX/R/IDS):

Fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire) between teeth within a dental arch

Intraosseous wiring (FX/R/WIR/OS):

Fixation using intraosseous wire

Bone plating (FX/R/PL):

Fixation using bone plates

External skeletal fixation (FX/R/EXF):

Fixation using pins or wires and extraoral splinting

Wire cerclage (FX/R/WIR/C):

Fixation using circumferential wiring

Temporomandibular Joint Trauma and Other Conditions

_________________________________________

Decreased mouth opening (DMO):

Difficulty opening the mouth by the animal or decreased range of mouth opening upon oral examination

Temporomandibular joint fracture (TMJ/FX):

Fracture of one or more bony structures forming the temporomandibular joint; surgical repair is abbreviated with

TMJ/FX/R

Temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJ/A):

Fusion between the bones forming the temporomandibular joint or those in close proximity, resulting in progressive inability to open the mouth; removal of bone in ankylotic areas is abbreviated with

TMJ/A/R

Temporomandibular joint luxation (TMJ/LUX):

Displacement of the condylar process of the mandible; manual or surgical reduction of temporomandibular joint luxation is abbreviated with

TMJ/LUX/R

Temporomandibular joint dysplasia (TMJ/D):

Dysplasia of soft or hard tissues forming the temporomandibular joint

Open-mouth jaw locking (OMJL):

Inability to close the mouth due to locking of the coronoid process of the mandible ventrolateral to the ipsilateral zygomatic arch; manual reduction of open-mouth jaw locking is abbreviated with

OMJL/R

Zygomectomy (ZYG/X):

Resection (usually partial) of the zygomatic arch

Coronoidectomy (COR/X):

Resection (usually partial) of the coronoid process of the mandible

Condylectomy (CON/X):

Resection of the condylar process of the mandible

Definitions of Stage, Grade and Index

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Stage:

The assessment of the extent of pathological lesions in the course of a disease that is likely to be progressive (e.g. stages of periodontal disease, staging of oral tumors).

Grade:

The quantitative assessment of the degree of severity of a disease or abnormal condition at the time of diagnosis, irrespective of whether the disease is progressive (e.g. a grade 2 mast cell tumor based on mitotic figures)

Index:

A quantitative expression of predefined diagnostic criteria whereby the presence and/or severity of pathological conditions are recorded by assessing a numerical value (e.g. gingival index, plaque index).

Stages of Periodontal Disease

_________________________________________

The degree of severity of periodontal disease (PD) relates to a single tooth; a patient may have teeth that have different stages of periodontal disease.

Normal (PD0):

Clinically normal; gingival inflammation or periodontitis is not clinically evident.

Stage 1 (PD1):

Gingivitis only without attachment loss; the height and architecture of the alveolar margin are normal.

Stage 2 (PD2):

Early periodontitis; less than 25% of attachment loss or, at most, there is a stage 1 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth. There are early radiologic signs of periodontitis. The loss of periodontal attachment is less than 25% as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root.

Stage 3 (PD3):

Moderate periodontitis – 25-50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 2 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

Stage 4 (PD4):

Advanced periodontitis; more than 50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 3 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

Reference: Wolf HF, Rateitschak EM, Rateitschak KH et al. Color atlas of dental medicine: periodontology, 3rd ed. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 2005.

Furcation Involvement and Mobility Index

_________________________________________

Furcation Index

Stage 1 (F1):

Furcation 1 involvement exists when a periodontal probe extends less than half way under the crown in any direction of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss.

Stage 2 (F2):

Furcation 2 involvement exists when a periodontal probe extends greater than half way under the crown of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss but not through and through.

Stage 3 (F3):

Furcation exposure exists when a periodontal probe extends under the crown of a multirooted tooth, through and through from one side of the furcation out the other.

Tooth Mobility Index

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Stage 0 (M0):

Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm.

Stage 1 (M1):

The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5 mm.

Stage 2 (M2):

The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0 mm.

Stage 3 (M3):

The mobility is increased in any direction than axial over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement.

Gingival and Periodontal Pathology

_________________________________________

Gingivitis:

Inflammation of gingiva

Periodontitis:

Inflammation of non-gingival periodontal tissues (i.e., the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone)

Gingival recession (GR):

Root surface exposure caused by apical migration of the gingival margin or loss of gingiva.

Gingival enlargement (GE):

Clinical term, referring to overgrowth or thickening of gingiva in the absence of a histological diagnosis

Gingival hyperplasia (GH):

Histological term, referring to an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a normal arrangement and resulting clinically in gingival enlargement

Abnormal tooth extrusion (ATE):

Increase in clinical crown length not related to gingival recession or lack of tooth wear

Alveolar bone expansion (ABE):

Thickening of alveolar bone at labial and buccal aspects of teeth

Periodontal Treatment

_________________________________________

Professional oral care

includes mechanical procedures performed in the oral cavity.

Professional dental cleaning (PRO)

refers to scaling (supragingival and subgingival plaque and calculus removal) and polishing of the teeth with power/hand instrumentation performed by a trained veterinary health care provider under general anesthesia. See also AVDC Position Statements on Dental Health Care Providers and and on Non-Professional Dental Scaling.

Periodontal therapy

refers to treatment of diseased periodontal tissues that includes professional dental cleaning as defined above and one or more of the following: root planing, gingival curettage, periodontal flaps, regenerative surgery, gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, and local administration of antiseptics/antibiotics.

Home oral hygiene

refers to measures taken by pet owners that are aimed at controlling or preventing plaque and calculus accumulation.

Gingival curettage (GC):

Removal of damaged or diseased tissue from the soft tissue lining of a periodontal pocket.

Root planing (RP):

Removal of dental deposits from and smoothing of the root surface of a tooth; it is closed

(RP/C)

when performed without a flap or open

(RP/O)

when performed after creation of a flap.

Gingivectomy (GV):

Removal of some or all gingiva surrounding a tooth

Gingivoplasty (GV):

A form of gingivectomy performed to restore physiological contours of the gingiva

Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR):

Regeneration of tissue directed by the physical presence and/or chemical activities of a biomaterial; often involves placement of barriers to exclude one or more cell types during healing of tissue

Crown lengthening (CR/L):

Increasing clinical crown height by means of gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, apically positioned flaps, post and core build-up, or orthodontic movement

Frenuloplasty (frenulotomy, frenulectomy) (FRE):

Reconstructive surgery or excision of a frenulum

Hemisection (HS):

Splitting of a tooth into two separate portionsB

Trisection (TS):

Splitting of a tooth into three separate portions.

Partial tooth resection (T/XP):

Removal of a crown-root segment with endodontic treatment of the remainder of the tooth

Root resection/amputation (RO/X):

Removal of a root with maintenance of the entire crown and endodontic treatment of the remainder of the tooth

Flap Surgery

_________________________________________

Flap (F): A sheet of tissue partially or totally detached to gain access to structures underneath or to be used in repairing defects; can be classified based on the location of the donor site (local or distant), attachment to donor site (pedicle, island or free), tissue to be transferred (e.g., mucosal, mucoperiosteal, cutaneous, myocutaneous), tissue thickness (partial-thickness or full-thickness), blood supply (random pattern or axial pattern), and direction and orientation of transfer (envelope, advancement, rotation, transposition, and hinged).

Location of Donor Site:

Local flap: Harvested from an adjacent site

Distant flap: Harvested from a remote site

Attachment to Donor Site:

Pedicle flap: Attached by tissue through which it receives its blood supply

Island flap (F/IS): Attached by a pedicle made up of only the nutrient vessels.

Free flap: Completely detached from the body; it has also been suggested that a free flap be termed a graft

Tissue to be Transferred:

Mucosal flap: Containing mucosa

Mucoperiosteal flap: Containing mucosa and underlying periosteum

Cutaneous (or skin) flap: Containing epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue

Myocutaneous flap: Containing skin and muscle

Gingival flap: Containing gingiva

Alveolar mucosa flap: Containing alveolar mucosa

Periodontal flap: Containing gingiva and alveolar mucosa

Labial flap: Containing lip mucosa

Buccal flap: Containing cheek mucosa

Sublingual flap: Containing sublingual mucosa

Palatal flap: Containing palatal mucosa

Pharyngeal flap: Containing pharyngeal mucosa

Tissue Thickness:

Partial-thickness (or split-thickness) flap: Consisting of a portion of the original tissue thickness

Full-thickness flap: Having the original tissue thickness

Blood Supply:

Random pattern flap: Randomly supplied by nonspecific arteries

Axial pattern flap: Supplied by a specific artery

Direction and Orientation of Transfer:

Envelope flap (F/EN): Retracted away from a horizontal incision; there is no vertical incision

Advancement (or sliding) flap (F/AD):
Carried to its new position by a sliding technique in a direction away from its base

Rotation flap (F/RO): A pedicle flap that is rotated into a defect on a fulcrum point

Transposition flap (F/TR): Flap that combines the features of an advancement flap and a rotation flap

Hinged flap (F/HI): Folded on its pedicle as though the pedicle was a hinge; also called a turnover or overlapping flap

Apically positioned flap (F/AP): Moved apical to its original location

Coronally positioned flap (F/CO): Moved coronal to its original location

Mesiodistally or distomesially positioned flap: Moved distal or mesial to its original location along the dental arch; also called a laterally positioned flap (F/LA)

Oral Inflammation

_________________________________________

Note that a definitive diagnosis of inflammation often cannot be made based on physical examination findings alone.

Oral and oropharyngeal inflammation

is classified by location:

Gingivitis:

Inflammation of gingiva

Periodontitis:

Inflammation of non-gingival periodontal tissues (i.e. the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone)

Alveolar mucositis:

Inflammation of alveolar mucosa (i.e., mucosa overlying the alveolar process and extending from the mucogingival junction without obvious demarcation to the vestibular sulcus and to the floor of the mouth)

Sublingual mucositis:

Inflammation of mucosa on the floor of the mouth

Labial/buccal mucositis:

Inflammation of lip/cheek mucosa

Caudal mucositis:

Inflammation of mucosa of the caudal oral cavity, bordered medially by the palatoglossal folds and fauces, dorsally by the hard and soft palate, and rostrally by alveolar and buccal mucosa

Stomatitis (ST):

Inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth; in clinical use the term should be reserved to describe wide-spread oral inflammation (beyond gingivitis and periodontitis) that may also extend into submucosal tissues (e.g., marked caudal mucositis extending into submucosal tissues may be termed caudal stomatitis

(ST/CS)

. Note: The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.

Contact mucositis and contact mucosal ulceration (CU):

Lesions in susceptible individuals that are secondary to mucosal contact with a tooth surface bearing the responsible irritant, allergen, or antigen. They have also been called “contact ulcers” and “kissing ulcers”.

Palatitis:

inflammation of mucosa covering the hard and/or soft palate

Glossitis:

inflammation of mucosa of the dorsal and/or ventral tongue surface

Osteomyelitis (OST): Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow

Cheilitis:

Inflammation of the lip (including the mucocutaneous junction area and skin of the lip)

Tonsilitis (TON/IN):

Inflammation of the palatine tonsil

Pharyngitis (PHA/IN):

inflammation of the pharynx

Autoimmune Conditions Affecting the Mouth

_________________________________________

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV):

Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by intraepithelial blister formation (after breakdown or loss of intercellular adhesion), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the epithelial desmosome-tonofilament complexes, and clinically by the presence of vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and mucocutaneous lesions

Bullous pemphigoid (BUP):

Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by subepithelial clefting (separation at the epithelium-connective tissue interface), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the basement membrane, and clinically by the presence of erythematous, erosive, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral lesions

Lupus erythematosis (LE):

Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by basal cell destruction, hyperkeratosis, epithelial atrophy, subepithelial and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and vascular dilation with submucosal edema, biochemically by the evidence of circulating autoantibodies against various cellular antigens in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and clinically by the presence of acute lesions (systemic LE) to skin, mucosa and multiple organs or chronic lesions (discoid LE) mostly confined to the skin of the face and mucosa of the oral cavity

Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM):

Autoimmune disease affecting the temporal, masseter, and medial and lateral pterygoid muscles of the dog. The term masticatory myositis is an acceptable alternative

Oral Tumors

_________________________________________

The AVDC Nomenclature Committee is working with human oral pathologists, veterinary pathologists and veterinary oncologists to develop a set of names for specific tumor types that will be acceptable for standard use in veterinary dental patients.

The term “epulis” (plural = “epulides”) is a general term referring to a gingival mass lesion of any type. Examples of epulides include: focal fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral odotogenic fibroma, acanthomatous ameloblastoma, non-odontogenic tumors, pyogenic granulomas and reactive exostosis.

Types of Neoplasms Occurring in Oral Tissues (listed in alphabetical order)

Acanthomatous ameloblastoma (OM/AA):

A typically benign, but aggressive, histological variant of a group of epithelial odontogenic tumors known collectively as ameloblastomas which have a basic structure resembling the enamel organ (suggesting derivation from ameloblasts); the acanthomatous histological designation refers to the central cells within nests of odontogenic epithelium that are squamous and may be keratinized rather than stellate

Adenoma (OM/AD) :

Benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium

Adenocarcinoma (OM/ADC):

An invasive, malignant epithelial neoplasm derived from glandular tissue of either the oral cavity, nasal cavity or salivary tissue (major or accessory)

Amyloid producing odontogenic tumor (OM/APO):

A benign epithelial odontogenic tumor characterized by the presence of odontogenic epithelium and extra-cellular amyloid

Anaplastic neoplasm (OM/APN):

A malignant neoplasm whose cells are generally undifferentiated and pleomorphic (displaying variability in size, shape and pattern of cells and/or their nuclei)

Cementoma (OM/CE):

A benign odontogenic neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, consisting of cementum-like tissue deposited by cells resembling cementoblasts Biopsy

Feline inductive odontogenic tumor (OM/FIO):

A benign tumor unique to adolescent and young adult cats that originates multifocally within the supporting connective tissue as characteristic, spherical condensations of fibroblastic connective tissue associated with islands of odontogenic epithelium; has also been incorrectly called inductive fibroameloblastoma

Fibrosarcoma (OM/FS):

An invasive, malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts; a distinct histologically low-grade, biologically high-grade variant is often found in the oral cavity

Giant cell granuloma (OM/GCG):

A benign, tumor-like growth consisting of multi-nucleated giant cells within a background stroma on the gingiva (peripheral giant cell granuloma) or within bone (central giant cell granuloma); also called giant cell epulis

Granular cell tumor (OM/GCT):

A benign tumor of the skin or mucosa with uncertain histogenesis, most commonly occurring on the tongue; also called myoblastoma

Hemangiosarcoma (OM/HS):

A malignant neoplasm of vascular endothelial origin characterized by extensive metastasis; it has been reported in the gingiva, tongue and hard palate

Lipoma (OM/LI):

A benign mesenchymal neoplasm of lipocytes

Lymphosarcoma (OM/LS):

A malignant neoplasm defined by a proliferation of lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, tonsils, bone marrow, liver and spleen; the disease also may occur in the eye, skin, nasal cavity, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract; also known as lymphoma

Malignant melanoma (OM/MM):

An invasive, malignant neoplasm of melanocytes or melanocyte precursors that may or may not be pigmented (amelanotic); also called melanosarcoma

Mast cell tumor (OM/MCT):

A local aggregation of mast cells forming a nodular tumor, having the potential to become malignant; also called mastocytoma

Multilobular tumor of bone (OM/MTB):

A potentially malignant and locally invasive neoplasm of bone that more commonly affects the mandible, hard palate and flat bones of the cranium with a multilobular histological pattern of bony or cartilaginous matrix surrounded by a thin layer of spindle cells that gives it a near pathognomonic radiographic “popcorn ball” appearance; also called multilobular osteochondrosarcoma, multilobular osteoma, multilobular chondroma, chondroma rodens, and multilobular osteosarcoma

Osteoma (OM/OO):

A benign neoplasm of bone consisting of mature, compact, or cancellous bone

Osteosarcoma (OM/OS):

A locally aggressive malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of primitive bone cells that have the ability to produce osteoid or immature bone

Papilloma (OM/PAP):

An exophytic, pedunculated, cauliflower-like benign neoplasm of epithelium; canine papillomatosis is thought to be due to infection with canine papillomavirus in typically young dogs; severe papillomatosis may be recognized in older dogs that are immunocompromised

Peripheral nerve sheath tumor (OM/PNT):

A group of neural tumors arising from Schwann cells or perineural fibroblasts (or a combination of both cell types) of the cranial nerves, spinal nerve roots or peripheral nerves; they may be classified as histologically benign or malignant

Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (OM/POF):

A benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumor associated with the gingiva and believed to originate from the periodontal ligament; characterized by varying amounts of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium embedded in a mature, fibrous stroma, which may undergo osseous metaplasia; historically been referred to as fibromatous epulis or – when bone or tooth-like hard tissue present within the lesion – ossifying epulis

Plasma cell tumor (OM/PCT):

A proliferation of plasma cells, commonly occurring on the gingiva or dorsum of the tongue; also called plasmacytoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (OM/RBM):

A malignant neoplasm of skeletal muscle or embryonic mesenchymal cells”

Squamous cell carcinoma (OM/SCC):

An invasive, malignant epithelial neoplasm of the oral epithelium with varying degrees of squamous differentiation

Undifferentiated neoplasm (OM/UDN):

A malignant neoplasm whose cells are generally immature and lack distinctive features of a particular tissue type

Diagnostic and Non-Surgical Treatment Procedures

_________________________________________

Biopsy (B):

Removal of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes. The term has also been used to describe the tissue being submitted for evaluation

Guided biopsy:

Using computed tomography or ultrasonography to guide an instrument to the selected area for tissue removal

Surface biopsy (B/S):

Removal of tissue brushed, scraped or obtained by an impression smear from the intact or cut surface of a tissue in question

Needle aspiration (B/NA):

Removal of tissue by application of suction through a hollow needle attached to a syringe

Needle biopsy (B/NB):

Removal of tissue by puncture with a hollow needle

Core needle biopsy (B/CN):

Removal of tissue with a large hollow needle that extracts a core of tissue

Bite biopsy (B/B):

Removal of tissue by closing the opposing ends of an instrument

Punch biopsy (B/P):

Removal of tissue by a punch-type instrument

Incisional biopsy (B/I)

Removal of a selected portion of tissue by means of surgical cutting

Excisional biopsy (B/E):

Removal of the entire tissue in question by means of surgical cutting Guided biopsy – Using computed tomography or ultrasonography to guide an instrument to the selected area for tissue removal

Radiotherapy (RTH):

Use of ionizing radiation to control or kill tumor cells; also called radiation therapy

Chemotherapy (CTH):

Use of cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) to control or kill tumor cells

Immunotherapy (ITH):

Use of the immune system to control or kill tumor cells

Radiography (RAD):

Two-dimensional imaging of dental, periodontal, oral and maxillofacial structures using an X-ray machine and radiographic films, sensor pads or phosphor plates

Computed tomography (CT):

A method of medical imaging that uses computer-processed X-rays to produce tomographic images or ‘slices’ of specific areas of the body; digital geometry processing is used to generate three-dimensional images of an object of interest from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation

Cone-beam CT (CT/CB):

Variation of traditional CT that rotates around the patient, capturing data using a cone-shaped X-ray beam

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

A method of medical imaging that uses the property of nuclear magnetic resonance to image nuclei of atoms inside the body

Ultrasonography (US):

A method of medical imaging of deep structures of the body by recording the echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues and reflected by tissue planes where there is a change in density

Scintigraphy (SCI):

A method of medical imaging that uses radioisotopes taken internally (e.g., by mouth, injection, inhalation), and the emitted radiation is captured by external detectors (gamma cameras) to form two-dimensional images

Surgical Treatment Procedures for Oral Tumors

_________________________________________

Surgery (S):

Branch of medicine that treats diseases, injuries and deformities by manual or operative methods

Buccotomy (BUC):

Incision through the cheek (for example to gain access to an intraoral procedure)

Cheiloplasty/commissuroplasty (CPL):

Reconstructive surgery of the lip/lip commissure

Commissurotomy (COM):

Incision through the lip commissure (for example to gain access to an intraoral procedure)

Partial mandibulectomy (S/M):

Surgical removal (en block) of part of the mandible and surrounding soft tissues

Dorsal marginal mandibulectomy (S/MD):

A form of partial mandibulectomy in which the ventral border of the mandible is maintained; also called marginal mandibulectomy or mandibular rim excision

Segmental mandibulectomy (S/MS):

A form of partial mandibulectomy in which a full dorsoventral segment of the mandible is removed

Bilateral partial mandibulectomy (S/MB):

Surgical removal of parts of the left and right mandibles and surrounding soft tissues

Total mandibulectomy (S/MT):

Surgical removal of one mandible and surrounding soft tissues

Partial maxillectomy (S/X):

Surgical removal (en block) of part of the maxilla and/or other facial bones and surrounding soft tissues

Bilateral partial maxillectomy (S/XB):

Surgical removal of parts of the left and right maxillae and/or other facial bones and surrounding soft tissues

Partial palatectomy (S/P):

Partial resection of the palate.

Other Oral Pathology

_________________________________________

Chewing lesion (CL):

Mucosal lesion resulting from self-induced bite trauma on the cheek (CL/B), lip (CL/L), palate (CL/P) or tongue/sublingual region (CL/T)

Eosinophilic granuloma (EOG):

Referring to conditions affecting the lip/labial mucosa (EOG/L), hard/soft palate (EOG/P), tongue/sublingual mucosa (EOG/T), and skin that are characterized histopathologically by the presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate

Pyogenic granuloma (PYO):

Inflammatory proliferation at the vestibular mucogingival tissues of the mandibular first molar tooth (in the cat probably due to malocclusion and secondary traumatic contact of these tissues by the ipsilateral maxillary fourth premolar tooth)

Erythema multiforme (EM):

Typically drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction characterized by erythematous, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and skin lesions

Calcinosis circumsctripta (CC):

Circumscribed areas of mineralization characterized by deposition of calcium salts (e.g., in the tip of the tongue)

Retrobulbar abscess (RBA):

Abscess behind the globe of the eye

Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA):

Abscess behind the pharynx

Craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO):

Disease characterized by cyclical resorption of normal bone and excessive replacement by immature bone along mandibular, temporal and other bone surfaces in immature and adolescent dogs

Calvarial hyperostosis (CHO):

Disease characterized by irregular, progressive proliferation and thickening of the cortex of the bones forming the calvarium in adolescent dogs

Fibrous osteodystrophy (FOD):

Disease characterized by the formation of hyperostotic bone lesions, in which deposition of unmineralized osteoid by hyperplastic osteoblasts and production of fibrous connective tissue exceed the rate of bone resorption; usually due to primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism; resulting in softened, pliable and distorted bones of the face (“rubber jaw”, “bighead” or “bran disease”)

Periostitis ossificans (PEO):

Periosteal new bone formation in immature dogs, manifesting clinically as (usually) unilateral swelling of the mid to caudal body of the mandible and radiographically as two-layered (double) ventral mandibular cortex

Anatomy of the Tongue, Lips, Cheek and Palate

_________________________________________

Tongue (LIN):

Fleshy muscular organ in the mouth used for tasting, licking, swallowing, articulating and thermoregulation; use

LIN/X

for tongue resection

Lip/cheek (LIP):

Fleshy parts that form the upper and lower edges of the opening of the mouth/side of the face below the eye; use

LIP/X

for lip/cheek resection

Hard palate:

The part of the palate supported by bone.
The midline of the hard palate is not a symphysis but is formed by the interincisive suture, the median palatine suture of the palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and the median suture of the palatine bones.
References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Palatine rugae:

Transverse ridges of mucosa on the hard palate

Incisive papilla:

Elevation of mucosa at the rostral end of the median line of junction of the halves of the palate, concealing the orifices of the incisive ducts

Soft palate:

The caudal part of palate that is not supported by bone

Abnormalities of the Palate

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Palate defect (PDE):

Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the hard or soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with

PDE/R

Cleft lip (CFL):

Congenital longitudinal defect of the upper lip or upper lip and most rostral hard palate (regardless of location); surgical repair is abbreviated with

CFL/R

Cleft palate (CFP):

Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with

CFP/R

Cleft soft palate (CFS):

Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the soft palate only; surgical repair is abbreviated with

CFS/R

Unilateral soft palate defect (CFSU):

Congenital longitudinal defect of the soft palate on one side only; surgical repair is abbreviated with

CFSU/R

Soft palate hypoplasia (CFSH):

Congenital decrease in length of the soft palate; surgical lengthening of the soft palate is abbreviated with

CFSH/R

Traumatic cleft palate (CFT):

Acquired longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and/or soft palate resulting from trauma; surgical repair is abbreviated with

CFT/R

Oronasal fistula (ONF):

Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the upper dental arch; surgical repair is abbreviated with

ONF/R

Oroantral fistula (OAF):

Acquired communication between the oral cavity and maxillary sinus in pigs, ruminants and equines (also called oromaxillary fistula in equines); surgical repair is abbreviated with

OAF/R

Elongated soft palate (ESP):

Congenital increase in length of the soft palate; surgical reduction of the soft palate is abbreviated with

ESP/R

Palatal obturator (POB):

Prosthetic device for temporary or permanent closure of palate defects

Anatomy of the Nose, Pharynx, Tonsil and Face

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Palatine tonsil (TON):

Tonsil related to the lateral attachment of the soft palate

Tonsillar fossa:

Depression containing the palatine tonsil

Semilunar fold:

Mucosal fold from the ventrolateral aspect of the soft palate, forming the medial wall of the tonsillar fossa

Pharynx (PHA):

Throat caudal to the oral cavity and divided into nasopharynx and oropharynx

Fauces:

The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.
References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Nose/nasal (N):

Referring to the part of the face or facial region that contains the nostrils and nasal cavity

Equine specific nasal and sinus terminolgy

Nasal, Pharyngeal and Facial Abnormalities and Procedures

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Discharge (DI):

Action of discharging a liquid or other substance

Right nasal discharge (DI/ND):

Discharge of material from the right nostril

Left nasal discharge (DI/NS):

Discharge of material from the left nostril

Bilateral nasal discharge (DI/NU):

Discharge of material from both nostrils

Right ocular discharge (DI/OD):

Discharge of material from the right eye

Left ocular discharge (DI/OS):

Discharge of material from the left eye

Bilateral ocular discharge (DI/OU):

Discharge of material from both eyes

Naris stenosis (NAS):

Pinched or narrow nostril

Nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS):

Constriction or narrowing of the nasopharyngeal passage; use

NPS/R

for nasopharyngeal stenosis repair

Nasopharyngeal polyp (N/POL):

Benign mass emanating from the auditory tube into the nasopharynx, often having their origin in the middle ear

Nasal SCC (N/SCC):

Nasal squamous cell carcinoma; use abbreviations under OM for other nasal tumors

Nasal lavage (N/LAV):

): Rinsing of the nasal and nasopharyngeal passages

Rhinoscopy (N/EN):

Endoscopic imaging of nasal and nasopharyngeal tissues

Naroplasty (NAS/R):

Surgical correction of a stenotic naris

Enophthalmos (ENO):

Recession of the eyeball (within the orbit)

Exophthalmos (EXO):

Protrusion of the eyeball (out of the orbit)

Equine specific nasal and sinus terminolgy

Anatomy of the Salivary Glands

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Salivary gland (SG):

An exocrine gland secreting saliva

Domestic animals have paired

mandibular glands

(or mandibular salivary glands) and

mandibular lymph nodes

. The term “submandibular,” as used in humans, is incorrect due the difference in topography of these structures.

Domestic animals also have paired

Parotid, Sublingual

and

Zygomatic glands.

References: Anonymous. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 4th ed. Zurich and Ithaca: World Association of Veterinary Anatomists, 1994. Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993.

Salivary Gland Abnormalities and Diagnostic Procedures

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Ptyalism (PTY):

Excessive flow of saliva; also called hypersalivation

Sublingual sialocele (SG/MUC/S):

Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the sublingual region; also called ranula

Pharyngeal sialocele (SG/MUC/P):

Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the pharyngeal region

Cervical sialocele (SG/MUC/C):

Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the intermandibular or cervical region

Mucus retention cyst (SG/RC):

Intraductal mucus accumulation with duct dilation resulting from obstruction of salivary flow (e.g., due to a sialolith)

Sialadenitis (SG/IN):

Inflammation of a salivary gland.

Sialadenosis (SG/ADS):

Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic enlargement of a salivary gland; also called sialosis

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (SG/NEC):

Squamous metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules with ischemic necrosis of the salivary gland lobules; also called salivary gland infarction

Salivary gland adencarcinoma (SG/ADC):

Adenocarcinoma arising from salivary glandular or ductal tissue; use abbreviations under

OM

for other salivary gland tumors.

Sialocele (or salivary mucocele):

Clinical term indicating a swelling that contains saliva and including mucus extravasation phenomenon and mucus retention cyst

Mucus extravasation phenomenon:

Accumulation of saliva that leaked from a salivary duct into subcutaneous or submucosal tissue and consequent tissue reaction to saliva

Sialolithiasis (SG/SI):

Condition characterized by the presence of one or more sialoliths, a calcareous concretion or calculus (stone) in the salivary duct or gland

Sialography (RAD/SG):

Radiographic technique where a radiopaque contrast agent is infused into the ductal system of a salivary gland before imaging is performed.

Salivary gland resection (SG/X):

Surgical removal of a salivary gland

Marsupialization (MAR):

Exteriorization of an enclosed cavity by resecting a portion of the cutaneous or mucosal wall and suturing the cut edges of the remaining wall to adjacent edges of the skin or mucosa, thereby creating a pouch; use

SG/MAR

for marsupialization of a sublingual or pharyngeal sialocele.

Lymph Nodes

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Lymph node (LN):

Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes and has a capsule; filtering lymph fluid, as afferent lymph vessels enter the node and efferent lymph vessels leave the node

Tonsil (TON):

Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes but lacks a capsule; not filtering lymph fluid, as there are no afferent lymph vessels

Lymph node enlargement (LN/E):

Palpable or visual enlargement of a lymph node

Regional metastasis (MET/R):

Neoplastic spread to regional lymph node(s) confirmed by biopsy

Distant metastasis (MET/D):

Neoplastic spread to distant sites confirmed by biopsy or diagnostic imaging

Lymph node resection (LN/X):

Surgical removal of a lymph node

Normal Occlusion

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Ideal occlusion can be described as perfect interdigitation of the upper and lower teeth. In the dog, the ideal tooth positions in the arches are defined by the occlusal, inter-arch and interdental relationships of the teeth of the archetypal dog (i.e. wolf). This ideal relationship with the mouth closed can be defined by the following:

Maxillary incisor teeth are all positioned rostral to the corresponding mandibular incisor teeth.

The crown cusps of the mandibular incisor teeth contact the cingulum of the maxillary incisor teeth.

The mandibular canine tooth is inclined labially and bisects the interproximal (interdental) space between the opposing maxillary third incisor tooth and canine tooth.

The maxillary premolar teeth do not contact the mandibular premolar teeth.

The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth are positioned lingual to the arch of the maxillary premolar teeth.

The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth bisect the interproximal (interdental) spaces rostral to the corresponding maxillary premolar teeth.

The mesial crown cusp of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth is positioned lateral to the space between the mandibular fourth premolar tooth and the mandibular first molar tooth.

Normal Occlusion in a Dog:

Normal Occlusion in a Cat:

Normal occlusion in cats is similar to dogs.

Maxillary incisor teeth are labial to the mandibular incisor teeth, with the incisal tips of the mandibular incisors contacting the cingula of the maxillary incisors or occluding just palatal to the maxillary incisors.

Mandibular canine teeth fit equidistant in the diastema between the maxillary third incisor teeth and the maxillary canine teeth, touching neither.

The incisor bite and canine interdigitation form the dental interlock.

Each mandibular premolar tooth is positioned mesial to the corresponding maxillary premolar tooth.

The maxillary second premolar tooth points in a space between the mandibular canine tooth and third premolar tooth.

The subsequent teeth interdigitate, with the mandibular premolars and first molar being situated lingual to the maxillary teeth.

The buccal surface of the mandibular first molar tooth occludes with the palatal surface of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth.

The maxillary first molar tooth is located distopalatal to the maxillary fourth premolar tooth.

Malocclusion

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Malocclusion (MAL) is any deviation from normal occlusion described above.

Malocclusion may be due to abnormal positioning of a tooth or teeth (dental malocclusion) or due to asymmetry or other deviation of bones that support the dentition (skeletal malocclusion).

The diagnosis for a patient with malocclusion is abbreviated as: MAL (malocclusion) 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 (= malocclusion class designation)/specific malocclusion abbreviation and tooth or teeth number(s).
Example: MAL1/CB/R202 for a dog with class 1 malocclusion and a rostral crossbite of the left maxillary second incisor.
If multiple teeth have the same malocclusion, include the tooth numbers with a comma in between e.g. MAL1/CB/R202,302

Dental Malocclusions

_________________________________________

Neutroclusion – Class 1 Malocclusion (MAL1):

A normal rostrocaudal relationship of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches with malposition of one or more individual teeth.

Distoversion(MAL1/DV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a distal direction.

Mesioversion (MAL1/MV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a mesial direction.

Linguoversion (MAL1/LV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a lingual direction.

Palatoversion (MAL1/PV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a palatal direction.

Labioversion (MAL1/LABV) describes an incisor or canine tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a labial direction.

Buccoversion (MAL1/BV) describes a premolar or molar tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a buccal direction.

Crossbite (CB) describes a malocclusion in which a mandibular tooth or teeth have a more buccal or labial position than the antagonist maxillary tooth. It can be classified as rostral or caudal:
In rostral crossbite (CB/R): One or more of the mandibular incisor teeth is labial to the opposing maxillary incisor teeth when the mouth is closed. Similar to posterior crossbite in human terminology.
In caudal crossbite (CB/C): One or more of the mandibular cheek teeth is buccal to the opposing maxillary cheek teeth when the mouth is closed. Similar to posterior crossbite in human terminology.

Symmetrical Skeletal Malocclusions:

_________________________________________

Mandibular Distoclusion – Class 2 Malocclusion (MAL2):

An abnormal rostrocaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes caudal to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch. Example:

 

Mandibular mesioclusion – Class 3 Malocclusion: (MAL3)

An abnormal rostralcaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes rostral to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch. Example:

Asymmetrical Skeletal Malocclusions:

_________________________________________

Maxillomandibular Asymmetry – Class 4 Malocclusion: (MAL4)

Asymmetry in a rostrocaudal, side-to-side, or dorsoventral direction:

Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a rostrocaudal direction (MAL4/RC) occurs when mandibular mesioclusion or distoclusion is present on one side of the face while the contralateral side retains normal dental alignment.

Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a side-to-side direction (MAL4/STS) occurs when there is loss of the midline alignment of the maxilla and mandible.

Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a dorsoventral direction (MAL4/DV) results in an open bite, which is defined as an abnormal vertical space between opposing dental arches when the mouth is closed.

The expression “wry bite” is a layman term that has been used to describe a wide variety of unilateral occlusal abnormalities. Because “wry bite” is non-specific, its use is not recommended.

Management of Malocclusion

_________________________________________

Orthodontics

is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the prevention, interception and correction of malocclusion.

Preventive orthodontics

is concerned with the client’s education, the development of the dentition and maxillofacial structures, the diagnostic procedures undertaken to predict malocclusion and the therapeutic procedures instituted to prevent the onset of malocclusion. Preventive procedures are undertaken in anticipation of development of a problem. Examples of preventive procedures include:

• Client education about time tables on exfoliation of deciduous teeth and eruption of permanent teeth

• Fiberotomy (severing of gingival fibers around a permanent tooth to prevent its relapse after corrective orthodontics)

• Operculectomy (surgical removal of an operculum to enable eruption of a permanent tooth)

• Extraction of a tooth that could pose a risk to development of malocclusion

Interceptive orthodontics

is concerned with the elimination of a developing or established malocclusion. Interceptive procedures are typically undertaken in the growing patient. Examples of interceptive procedures include:

• Crown reduction of a permanent tooth in malocclusion

• Extraction of a tooth in malocclusion

Corrective orthodontics

is concerned with the correction of malocclusion without loss of the maloccluded tooth or part of its crown. This is accomplished by means of tooth movement. Examples of corrective procedures include:

• Surgical repositioning of a tooth

• Orthognathic surgery to treat skeletal malocclusion

• Passive movement of a tooth using an inclined plane

• Active movement of a tooth using an elastic chain

Treatment plan (TP):

Written document that outlines the progression of therapy (advantages, disadvantages, costs, alternatives, outcome and duration of treatment)

Impression (IM):

Detailed imprint of hard and/or soft tissues that is formed with specific types of impression materials

Full-mouth impression (IM/F):

Imprints of the dentition and/or surrounding soft tissues of the upper and lower dental arches

Diagnostic cast (DC):

Positive replica created by pouring a liquid material into an impression or placing an impression into a liquid material; once the material has hardened, the cast is removed and used for the purpose of study and treatment planning; also called die

(DC/D)

when made from an impression of a particular tooth/area of interest or stone model

(DC/SM)

when made from a full-mouth impression

Bite registration (BR):

Impression used to record a patient’s occlusion, which is then used to articulate diagnostic casts

Fiberotomy (FT):

Severing gingival fibers around a permanent tooth to prevent its relapse after corrective orthodontics

Operculectomy (OP):

Surgical removal of an operculum to enable eruption of a permanent tooth

Surgical repositioning (SR):

Repositioning of a developmentally displaced tooth

Orthognathic surgery (OS):

Surgical procedure to alter relationships of dental arches typically performed to correct skeletal malocclusion

Bracket/button/hook (OA/BKT):

Device made of metal or plastic that is bonded to the tooth surface and aids in the attachment of wires or elastics; use

OA/CMB

if custom-made

Elastic chain/tube/thread (OA/EC):

Orthodontic elastics used to move teeth

Orthodontic wire (OA/WIR):

Metal wire with ‘memory’ used to move teeth

Arch bar (OA/AR):

Device attached to one dental arch to move individual teeth in between the device’s attachments

Orthodontic appliance (OA):

Device attached to a tooth or teeth to move a tooth or teeth

Orthodontic appliance adjustment (OA/A):

Abbreviation used at the time of adjustment of the orthodontic appliance

Orthodontic appliance installation (OA/I):

Abbreviation used at the time of installation of the orthodontic appliance

Orthodontic appliance removal (OA/R):

Abbreviation used at the time of removal of the orthodontic appliance

Orthodontic counseling (OC):

Client communication on the genetic basis, diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion and the legal and ethical implications of orthodontics

Ball therapy (BTH):

Removable orthodontic device in the form of a ball or cone-shaped rubber toy (for example to passively move linguoverted mandibular canine teeth)

Inclined plane (IP):

Fixed orthodontic device made of acrylic (IP/A), composite (IP/C) or metal (IP/M) with sloping planes (for example to passively move linguoverted mandibular canine teeth)

Orthodontic recheck (OR): Examination of a patient treated with an orthodontic appliance.

Tooth Extraction-Related Terminology

_________________________________________

Closed extraction (X or XS):

Extraction of teeth without flap creation; X is used when closed extraction is performed without tooth sectioning; XS is used when closed extraction is performed with tooth sectioning or removal of interproximal crown tissue

Open extraction (XSS):

Extraction of teeth after flap creation and alveolectomy

Alveolectomy (ALV):

Removal of some or all of the alveolar bone

Alveoloplasty (ALV):

A form of alveolectomy performed to restore physiological contours or achieve smooth contours of the alveolar bone.

Palate, Pharynx and Nasal Surgery

_________________________________________

Palate Surgery – Click the link

Naroplasty (NAS/R):

Surgical correction of stenotic nares

Tonsillectomy (TON/X):

Surgical resection of the palatine tonsil

Grafts and Related Terminology

_________________________________________

Transplantation:

Act or process of transferring something from one part or individual to another.

Transplant:

Something that is transferred from one part or individual to another.

Graft (GF):

Non-living material or living tissue used for implantation or transplantation to replace a diseased part or compensate for a defect.

Gingival graft (GF/G):

Gingiva or gingiva-like tissue (e.g., from the hard palate) used to replace gingiva in a gingival defect.

Connective tissue graft (GF/CT):

Connective tissue from a keratinized mucosa (e.g., from the hard palate) placed in a gingival defect and which is partially or completely covered with gingiva and/or alveolar mucosa in the recipient bed.

Mucosal graft (GF/M)

Mucosa used to take place of a removed piece of mucosa or cover a mucosal defect.

Bone graft (GF/B):

A surgical procedure by which bone or a bone substitute is used to take place of a removed piece of bone or bony defect.

Cartilage graft (GF/C):

Cartilage used to to take the place of a removed piece of bone or fill a bony defect.

Skin graft (GF/S):

Skin used to take place of a removed piece of skin/mucosa or skin/mucosa defect.

Venous graft (GF/V):

A vein used to take place of a removed segment of artery/vein or arterial/venous defect.

Nerve graft (GF/N):

A nerve used to take place of a removed segment of nerve or nerve defect.

Fat graft (GF/F):

Adipose tissue used to provide volume to a defect or to prevent ingrowth of other tissues into the defect.

Autograft:

Tissue transferred from one area to another area of the animal’s own body.

Isograft:

Tissue transferred between genetically identical animals.

Allograft:

Tissue transferred between genetically dissimilar animals of the same species.

Xenograft:

Tissue transferred between animals of different species.

Particulate graft:

A graft containing equally or variably-sized particles.

Full-thickness graft:

A graft consisting of the full thickness of a tissue.

Partial-thickness (split-thickness) graft:

A graft consisting of a portion of the thickness of a tissue.

Mesh graft:

A type of partial-thickness graft in which multiple small incisions have been made to increase stretching and flexibility of the graft.

Composite graft:

A graft composed of at least two different tissues, e.g., skin-muscle-and-bone graft.

Implant (IMP):

Something inserted into or applied onto living tissue.

Implantation:

The act or process of inserting something into or applying something onto living tissue.

Equine Dental Anatomical Structures

_________________________________________

Infundibulum (INF): Enamel cup-like infolding from the occlusal surface in incisors (one) and maxillary cheek teeth (two)

Diastema (D): Space between teeth in a jaw.

Pulp horn (PH): An elongation of the pulp chamber extending towards the cusps of brachyodont teeth; an elongation of the common pulp chamber extending towards the occlusal surface of equine cheek teeth (numbers refer to the Du Toit numbering system, e.g., PH1, PH2, etc.).

Regular secondary dentin: Dentin produced on the periphery of the pulp after the tooth has come into occlusion which gradually reduces the size of the pulp horns

Irregular secondary dentin: Physiological dentin that is laid down last, sub-occlusally in the center of the pulp horn which prevents pulp exposure with normal tooth wear

Sinus (SIN): Paranasal cavity within a bone

Conchofrontal sinus (SIN/CF): Compound term for the frontal sinus and the dorsal conchal sinus, which are continuous in equines

Caudal maxillary sinus (SIN/CMX): Cavity in equines separated by the maxillary septum from the rostral maxillary sinus; communicating with the frontal and sphenopalatine sinuses

Rostral maxillary sinus (SIN/RMX): Cavity in equines separated by the maxillary septum from the caudal maxillary sinus; opening freely into the ventral conchal sinus

Sphenopalatine sinus (SIN/SP): Continued cavity formed by the sphenoid and palatine sinuses in equines; opening into the caudal maxillary sinus

Ventral conchal sinus (SIN/VC): Cavity enclosed by the caudal part of the ventral concha.

Equine Dental Abnormalities and Procedures

_________________________________________

Tooth elongation (T/EL): Abnormal intraoral and/or periapical extension of the coronal and/or apical portion of the tooth

Open diastema (D/O): Pathological widening of the interproximal space that has similar widths at the gingival margin and occlusal surface

Valve diastema (D/V): Pathological widening of the interproximal space that is considerably wider at the gingival margin than at the occlusal surface

Temporal teratoma (TT): Vestigial dental structure in the vicinity of the temporal bone as a result of failure of closure of the first branchial cleft usually associated with swelling or a sinus tract at the base of the pinna of the ear; also known as heterotopic polyodontia or “ear tooth” and erroneously called dentigerous cyst in the horse

Pulp horn defect (PH/D): Pulp horn exposure or defective secondary dentin overlying a pulp horn noted on the occlusal surface of cheek teeth which may or may not be vital

Infundibular caries (CA/INF): Caries of the maxillary cheek teeth infundibulae; grade 1 involving cementum only; grade 2 also involving enamel; grade 3 also involving dentin; grade 4 affecting the structural integrity of the tooth; use CA/INF/D for distal infundibular caries and CA/INF/M for mesial infundibular caries

Peripheral caries (CA/PER): – Caries affecting the periphery of the cheek teeth; grade 1 involving cementum only; grade 2 also involving enamel; grade 3 also involving dentin; grade 4 affecting the structural integrity of the tooth

Shear mouth (SHE): Abnormally increased occlusal angulation of the cheek teeth; for example >40° for mandibular cheek teeth and >25° for maxillary cheek teeth

Sinusitis (SIN/IN): Inflammation of the sinus (e.g. SIN/IN/RMX = rostral maxillary sinusitis)

Primary sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus associated with bacterial infection of the sinuses without any detectable predisposing cause.

Secondary sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus associated with bacterial infection where a predisposing cause such as periapical disease or intra-sinus growth is present

Dental sinusitis: Sinusitis caused by periapical disease of the caudal cheek teeth

Diastema odontoplasty (or widening) (D/ODY): Removal of interproximal dental tissue to avoid entrapment of food between teeth

Sinoscopy (SIN/EN): Endoscopic examination of the sinus using a trephine portal

Sinus flap (SIN/F): Surgical access to the sinus via a skin and bone flap; use SIN/CF/F for a chonchofrontal sinus flap and SIN/MX/F for a maxillary sinus flap

Sinus lavage (SIN/LAV): Flushing of the sinus

Equine Tooth Extraction and Related Procedures

_________________________________________

Trephination (TRP): Surgical access to a structure of interest via skin incision and removal of a circular piece of bone using a trephine

Sinus trephination (SIN/TRP): Access to the sinus via a trephined hole

Closed extraction with odontoplasty (XS/ODY): Removal of interproximal crown tissue to facilitate transoral extraction of a tooth

Extraction of a tooth after apicoectomy and repulsion (XSS/APX/RPL): Extraction of a tooth after apicoectomy and repulsion which is performed via TRP, SIN/TRP or SIN/F

Transbuccal extraction (XSS/BUC): Extraction of a tooth after buccotomy

Transbuccal extraction with alveolectomy (XSS/BUC/ALV): Extraction of a tooth after buccotomy and alveolectomy

Transcommissural extraction (XSS/COM): Extraction of a tooth after commissurotomy

Transcommissural extraction with alveolectomy (XSS/COM/ALV): Extraction of a tooth after commissurotomy and alveolectomy

Minimally invasive buccotomy extraction (XSS/MIB): Extraction of a tooth via minimally invasive buccotomy (small incision made for introduction of straight instrumentation to elevate, section or drill into a cheek tooth for the purpose of facilitating its transoral extraction)

Extraction via repulsion (XSS/RPL): Extraction of a tooth after repulsion which is performed via TRP, SIN/TRP or SIN/F

English is the official language of AVDC. All documents, forms and examinations provided by AVDC are written in English, and all materials submitted by applicants and residents are to be written in English.

Use of Specialty Titles: The AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics state: It is unethical for veterinarians to identify themselves as or in any way imply that they are members of an AVMA recognized specialty organization until such time as such certification has been awarded. AVDC has adopted the Guidelines for Use of Specialty Titles, prepared by the American Board of Veterinary Specialties of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

By signing the AVDC Training Program Registration form, an individual submitting an application for registration of a training program acknowledges that s/he may not use the terms ‘board eligible’, ‘board qualified’, ‘veterinary dental specialist’ or ‘veterinary dentist’, and may not make or imply any connection with AVDC until such time as the individual passes the AVDC examination and is awarded the AVDC Diploma.

The registration of an AVDC training program of an individual who is not in compliance with the policy stated above may be terminated by AVDC, in which case the individual will not be permitted to complete the AVDC credentials and/or the examination procedures, and, when appropriate, the circumstances may be reported by AVDC to the individual’s State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners.